14 Jul Endocrinologist Yuri Poteshkin on the influence of hormones on our life The Village
Endocrinologist Yuri Poteshkin – about the influence of hormones on our life – the Village
The Village finds out if there is a hormone of happiness, whether hormone therapy can cure depression and how Arnold Schwarzenegger suffered from testosterone – the Village
– Let’s first define: what are hormones?
– In general, a hormone is a substance that is produced inside the body, affects certain cells and at the same time changes their metabolism. Hormones are released when the body needs to adapt to a new situation. Cells have receptors for hormones (but for vitamins, for example, there are no receptors). But these clenbuterol peptides receptors are not present on all cells, but only on some that perform a certain function in the body. For example, thyroid hormones affect metabolic rate and heat production. Cortisol, a hormone of the adrenal glands, is produced during prolonged stress and helps to cope with this stress. And there are substances that act over short distances and are not released for long. For example, adrenaline also modulates the body’s response to stress and activates the nervous system. But, unlike cortisol, adrenaline will not be produced for several days in a row..
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Hormones are the “old” regulation, primitive organisms have only it, but the nervous system does not. Higher organisms have a nervous system, and it is it that normally controls hormones, and not vice versa. With organ pathologies, the situation may change and hormones will begin to affect the nervous system. For example, a tumor has developed in the adrenal gland, and it releases cortisol uncontrollably. Of course, its lion’s dose will affect human behavior. There is such a condition – “steroid psychosis”: this behavior disorder is just manifested with an unhealthy excess of cortisol.
There is a higher nervous activity, the cerebral cortex is responsible for it. It can affect the hypothalamus, which is part of the nervous system. The hypothalamus produces neurotransmitters that activate the pituitary gland. But the pituitary gland already acts on most of the endocrine glands, giving them signals to secrete or not secrete hormones. In addition, feedback from these glands comes to the pituitary gland, it also gives information about which hormones and how much needs to be produced..
– Nowadays they often say: “love chemistry”, “attachment hormone” (about oxytocin) or “happiness hormone” (about serotonin) and so on. Is it really possible to say so?
– It all depends on what people understand by this. In science, there is cause and effect, and there are correlations. People don’t always distinguish between them. Correlation means that two things happen simultaneously with each other. Moreover, they may not depend legal anadrol price build the physique of a superhero on each other at all. If we add serotonin to the human body, will a person be happy from this? No. He is more likely to have the prerequisites for becoming happy. Again, it is the central nervous system that signals the release of hormones to adapt to the situation. If there is love, it means that certain hormones will be released. No need – no hormones will be released.
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– That is, in a normal situation, hormones do not cause any condition, but this condition causes the release of hormones?
– Yes. Hormones are designed to adapt us to what’s going on. It will not work to cure some mood and mental disorders with the help of hormones, the reasons for these disorders are different.
– You can consider one example of situations when certain hormones are needed – prolonged stress.
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– The main hormone released during prolonged stress is cortisol. By the way, this is an example of how a hormone can have different effects in different parts of the body due to different intracellular signal pathways. Cortisol breaks down adipose tissue, but when it is in excess, it occurs mainly on the arms and legs, and in the abdomen, cortisol rather promotes the accumulation of fat. Therefore, people with an excess of cortisol (hypercortisolism) look very characteristic: they have thin limbs, but a large belly.
– And can in this case be obesity from stress?
– You can’t call it obesity. Cortisol does not contribute to the formation of new adipose tissue; under its action, it rather changes its place of dislocation in the body. In prehistoric times, this hormone was released in response to physical danger and mobilized the body’s strength to survive this danger. On the limbs, fat is destroyed, but on the trunk, on the contrary, it accumulates, the limbs are not so sorry to lose. In addition, cortisol itself stimulates appetite: before, in difficult times, a person had to look for food in order not to die of hunger. At the same time, cortisol has a destructive effect on bones, although it would seem that bone density in any situation must be kept at a high level. The thing is that bones in a stressful situation serve as a source of calcium.
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In fact, cortisol is not intended for long-term release, it, like adrenaline, is needed at short distances: now everything is bad, cortisol is released, the person went and got food. After that, cortisol should already stop being produced. But the fact is that now a person is much more often threatened with psychological danger than physical danger, and it does not pass so quickly. Therefore, for example, under constant stress at work, cortisol will continue to be produced, although there is no need to look for any food. The release of cortisol is also controlled by the pituitary gland, in particular the pituitary hormone ACTH (adrenocorticotropic). Its level often rises with stress and depression..
– Hence the question: is it possible theoretically with work your mesterolone for sale in australia with hormones to correct a person’s condition with depression?
– Depression comes from the central nervous system, that is, the problem is not with hormones, but with the head. Here you need to work with a person’s psychological reactions to what worries him, and this is the work of psychotherapists. If a person is doing well, hormones will not drive him into depression. On the other hand, if he has depression, with which he does nothing – does not go to a specialist, does not take antidepressants – the hormones of such a person will not relieve depression.
– And yet hormones can influence behavior.
– Of course, hormones can slightly change a person’s behavior. For example, in case of thyrotoxicosis, when there is a lot of thyroid hormone, thyroxine, irritability and irascibility may appear. It is unpleasant to communicate with such a person, but at the same time he likes himself and is completely confident in himself. And there are also patients with thyrotoxicosis who are very easy to bring to tears. For example, you advise one person to be treated, and he replies in an explosive way: “No, I will not!” Say the same to another patient, and he goes into tears. The reaction depends on what character the person had before the disease. That is, how the hormones work depends on the underlying data. The same thyroxine aggravates the behavioral characteristics of a person, therefore it is almost impossible to correct the behavior with hormones. It is necessary to change the connections between neurons in the head, but this is not done by hormones.
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– It turns out that you need to contact a psychotherapist.
– Yes, the endocrinologist will not help here. But in our country there is such a tendency that if a person comes to a doctor of any specialization and this person is some kind of strange, that is, it is not clear what happened to him, he is referred to an endocrinologist. First of all, doctors think positively about patients and believe that if people cannot control behavior, this is the result of the pathological release of any hormones of the endocrine glands – for example, the same thyrotoxicosis. To exclude this pathology, they ask for help from endocrinologists. Most often, endocrinologists do not find any pathology. This only proves that a person needs to go to a psychotherapist or psychiatrist and solve their mental problems. But, unfortunately, we do not have a culture of referring to psychiatrists and such a recommendation can cause a negative reaction. This is a legacy from the days of punitive psychiatry: there is a prejudice that if you go to a psychiatrist, your active social life may end there. But today we do not have punitive psychiatry, but there are doctors who treat. Provided that the patient came to them, of course.